Several of those detained were subjected to intrusive physical “examinations”.
One spell invokes the gods to "burn the heart" of a woman until she loves the spell caster, said Franco Maltomini of the University of Udine in Italy, who translated the two spells.
Another spell, targeted at a male, uses a series of magical words to "subject" him, forcing him to do whatever the caster wants.
Under Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to which Nigeria is a party, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing, unless proceedings need exceptionally to be held in camera.
Any restrictions on the public nature of a trial, including for the protection of national security, must be both necessary and proportionate, as assessed on a case-by-case basis.
In all three countries, authorities have alleged that those arrested were involved in sex work – although in almost all cases the accused have denied such allegations or indicated that they were coerced into confessing involvement.